Research and Publications

Design and Implementation of Smart Bees Hiving & Monitoring System

This paper presents the design and implementation of a smart hiving technology for providing beekeepers a remote facility to gather information related to bees inside the hive and use that information to regulate from remotely the environment of beehive in real time in order to enhance bees honey productivity. This is achieved using an Arduino microcontroller, a global system for mobile communication (GSM) module, and a liquid crystal display (LCD). The smart hiving technology allows beekeepers to receive all information related to bees inside the hive at regular intervals and they are alerted through their mobile phones in case of emergency situations. This paper also discusses the advantages of the proposed system to customers and beekeepers, as well as some challenges and provides recommendations.

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Self-Powered Smart Beehive Monitoring and Control System (SBMaCS)

Abstract Beekeeping in Africa has been practiced for many years through successive generations and along inherited patterns. Beekeepers continue to face challenges in accessing consistent and business-driven markets for their bee products. In addition, the honeybee populations are decreasing due to colony collapse disorder (CCD), fire, loss of bees in swarming, honey buggers and other animals, moths, starvation, cold weather, and Varoa mites. The main issues are related to un-controlled temperature, humidity, and traditional management of beekeeping. These challenges result in low production of honey and colony losses. The control of the environmental conditions within and surrounding the beehives are not available to beekeepers due to the lack of monitoring systems. A Smart Beehive System using Internet of Things (IoT) technology would allow beekeepers to keep track of the amount of honey created in their hives and bee colonies even when they are far from their hives, through mobile phones, which would curtail the challenges currently faced by the beekeepers. However, there are challenges in the design of energy-efficient embedded electronic devices for IoT. A promising solution is to provide energy autonomy to the IoT nodes that will harvest residual energy from ambient sources, such as motion, vibrations, light, or heat. This paper proposes a Self-Powered Smart Beehive Monitoring and Control System (SBMaCS) using IoT to support remote follow-up and control, enhancing bee colonies’ security and thus increasing the honey productivity. First, we develop the SBMaCS hardware prototype interconnecting various sensors, such as temperature sensor, humidity sensor, piezoelectric transducer—which will work as a weight sensor—motion sensor, and flame sensor. Second, we introduce energy harvesting models to self-power the SBMaCS by analyzing the (i) energy harvested from adult bees’ vibrations, (ii) energy harvesting through the piezoelectric transducer, and (iii) radio frequency energy harvesting. Third, we develop a mobile phone application that interacts with the SBMaCS hardware to monitor and control the various parameters related to the beehives. Finally, the SBMaCS PCB layout is also designed. SBMaCS will help beekeepers to successfully monitor and control some important smart beekeeping activities wherever they are using their mobile phone application.

Authors:by Elias Ntawuzumunsi 1,*ORCID,Santhi Kumaran 2 andLouis Sibomana 3
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Resource Efficient Algorithm for D2D Communications Between Adjacent and Co-channel Cells of LTE Networks

Abstract Device-to-device (D2D) communication has been a hot topic recently because of its potential advantages such as high data rates, spectrum-efficient, and energy-efficient. D2D communication has the advantage of maximum spectral usage, provides higher throughput. The idea in this paper is to design an algorithm for resource efficient D2D communications in adjacent and Co-channel cell of LTE networks. One of the methods used is cell splitting to make different adjacent and Co-channel cell, hence increasing cell capacity and offloading the base station. In this research work, we evaluate how to improve the Quality of service for the User Equipment by designing an algorithm of resource efficient for D2D communication within adjacent and Co-channel cells. As a result, different cells can reuse the same frequency resources in the LTE cellular network. The simulated results show that the proposed algorithm can largely improve the system capacity compared with other existing algorithm.

Authors:Elias Ntawuzumunsi & Santhi Kumaran
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Contribution of Small and Medium Enterprises Run by Women in Generating Employment Opportunity in Rwanda

Abstract Small and Medium Enterprises are the key to the national economic development as a way to improve its population livelihood. The main reason for this sector is a potential employment with the low cost of the capital. The contribution of small and medium enterprises run by women in society was recognized to the employment generation, gender equality and economic development. A personnel initiative, vision, and innovation to grow their businesses are well needed. In this research 15 districts out of 30 were selected to get all needed data, and thirteen (13) women were communicated in each selected district (15) as a sum of a hundred and ninety-five (195) correspondents. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used to analyze data, and questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. Our results have been proved that small and medium enterprises run by women and sustainability of Rwandan economic development were closely related as the SMEs run by women increase and employment opportunities also increase. It was noted that women owned SMEs is a central driving effort behind gender equality, poverty reduction, and job creation. Therefore, it is recommended that the government might set the policy to encourage women in doing business whereby women in different regions of Rwanda should be given enough attention in economy activities through both small and medium enterprises, and entrepreneurship.

Authors: Rachel Bayisenge Hu Shengede Yves Harimana Jean Bosco Karega Margret Lukileni Muhammad Nasrullah Hu Xinrui Beneyo Emmerance Nteziyaremye
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Gender Equality, Agriculture and Rural Development: Evidence from Nyamasheke Coffee Production in Rwanda

Abstract This study examines and proves how women contribute to gender equality and rural development through cash crops. Although, women in agriculture sector have a greater role to everyplace in the world, which differs from country to country, state to state, work to work, society to society and region to region. Combination of the quantitative and qualitative survey methods was used. The analysis targeted on primary data by using observation and interview. Based on previous culture in Rwanda; most of women were not used to participate in cash crops, thought that was for men; so far, it was identified that women who intervene in cash crops prove their capability in it, and contribute more to gender equality as one way of empowering them economically. This study will help rural women farmers from rural area who were not participating yet in cash crop to change their minds, and be able to participate in cash crops as men do. The context is essential and policies can be founded on sound materials and gender analysis.

Authors: Rachel Bayisenge, Hu Shengde Shengde, Yves Harimana, Jean Bosco Karega, Muhammad Nasrullah, Diogene Tuyiringire
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